Intelligence involves the ability to think, solve problems, analyze situations, and understand social values, customs, and norms. Two main forms of intelligence are involved in most intelligence assessments:
- Verbal Intelligence is the ability to comprehend and solve language-based problems; and
- Nonverbal Intelligence is the ability to understand and solve visual and spatial problems.
Intelligence testing is the estimation of a student's current intellectual functioning through performance of various tasks designed to assess different types of reasoning. IQ is typically measured by standardized testing with norm-referenced tests.
Why is Intelligence Testing Important for Learning Disabled Students?
- In most cases, intelligence testing is required by federal special education regulations to confirm or rule-out the presence of mental disabilities and to establish IQ for the purposes of diagnosing a learning disability;
- Depending on the type of intelligence test administered, it may provide important information on how students approach problem solving; and
- Properly interpreted, intelligence testing help educators develop appropriate specially designed instruction and educational strategies for IEP development.
What are Common Types of Intelligence Tests?
Intelligence tests (also called instruments) are published in several forms:
- Group intelligence tests usually consist of a paper test booklet and scanned scoring sheets. Group achievement tests, which assess academic areas, sometimes include a cognitive measure. In general, group tests are not recommended for the purpose of identifying a child with a disability. In some cases, however, they can be helpful as a screening measure to consider whether further testing is needed and can provide good background information on a child's academic history.
- Individual intelligence tests may include several types of tasks and may involve easel test books for pointing responses, puzzle and game-like tasks, and question and answer sessions. Some tasks are timed.
- Computerized tests are becoming more widely available, but as with all tests, examiners must consider the needs of the child before choosing this format.